Kütahya Tile Application Techniques
- Mosaic Tile Technique
- Colored Glaze Technique
- Under Glaze Painting Technique
- Finishing Technique
Mosaic Tile Technique:
It can be said that the source of this technique, which is the oldest technique widely used in Turkish tile art, is glazed brick decoration. Mosaic tile technique has been a tile technique that brought its personality to the Anatolian Seljuk tile art in the 13th century and continued its existence from the Ottoman period until the end of the 15th century.
Colored Glaze Technique:
Its main technical feature is that the decoration is made directly with the opaque colored glaze with zinc. In this technique, the plate is painted with colored glaze. In the colored glaze technique, in the decoration example on the plate, it is redrawn with a chromium oxide composition, given as a contour, and the colors that are baked in this way are prevented from flowing into each other.
Painting Under Glaze:
It is a tile technique that completed its development in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the 13th century, as it was used in the Anatolian Seljuks in the 16th century.
It is an over glaze technique. It is decorated with gold and silver powders and baked on colorless transparent glazed plates with white slip.
The tiles belonging to the period called “first Ottoman Period” are on the minaret of the İznik Yeşil Mosque (1390), Bursa Yeşil Mosque and Tomb (1421),
It can be seen in Bursa Muradiye Mosque (1426), Edirne Muradiye Mosque (1433), Istanbul Mahmut Pasha Tomb (1463), Çinili Köşk (1472), and Şah Melek Pasha Mosques in Edirne. These are usually tiles produced with mosaic or glazed paint technique.
In these periods, colors such as dark blue, blue, turquoise, black, yellow and rumi, kufic script, geometric shapes and stylized motifs of plant origin were used.
The period that follows can be called a transitional period. Father Nakkas, Nakkaşbaşı of the Conqueror Period, played a great role in the development of pottery. Artists brought to Istanbul from other parts of the state, whose borders expanded during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim, also contributed significantly to this art.
The tiles used in architectural works such as Yavuz Sultan Selim Mosque and Tomb in Istanbul (1522), Şehzadeler Tomb (1525), Haseki Madrasa (1539), Şehzade Mehmet Tomb (1543), Kara Ahmet Pasha Mosque in Topkapı (1551), are the tiles of this period. are his works.
In these tiles produced with the glazed paint technique; Rumi, clouds, floral motifs in the Hatai style, pistachio green, yellow, blue, turquoise, dark blue and tile colors were used. The yellow color is intended as a lining to be glued with gold leaf.
Kütahya Tile Application Techniques
In this period, there were changes and developments in both quality and pattern production. The Turks abandoned the mosaic and dry edges techniques and developed the underglaze paint and glaze technique. In addition, new motifs began to be developed and produced in the palace embroidery.
First of all, Veli Can, who was an Iranian painter and called Sahkulu, was appointed as the Chief muralist of the Palace and started to produce patterns for the Reed Path. Along with large leaves, the emerald phoenix, pigeons and parrots, deer and rabbits, roosters, etc. started to use animalistic motifs on tiles.
Following him, Karamemi, who was his student and head of the palace painter, started to use cypress and spring trees, vines, tulips, roses, hyacinths, Manisa tulips, susen flowers, centaury flowers, lilies, zerrin flowers, cloves and their buds in decoration, with little simplification.
A period of spring has been experienced in the tiles that have started to be used again, with red, leaf green, blue, dark blue, turquoise and brown colors on tree trunks.
This period, called the “Classical Era”, begins with the construction of the İbrahim Pasha Mosque (1551) in Silivrikapı. Another important reason for this development is that it was the period of Mimar Sinan and he gave great importance to tiles in many of his buildings. As a matter of fact, listing the works of that period shows the degree of this importance.
Süleymaniye (1560), Sokullu Mehmet Pasha (1571) in Sultanahmet, Piyale Pasha (1573) in Kasımpaşa, Rüstempaşa (1560) Mosques in Eminönü, Altınyol panels in Topkapı Palace, Murat III Pavilion, II. Selim and III. Murat Tombs, Kılıçali Pasha (1580) in Tophane, Former Valide (1583) in Toptaşı in Üsküdar, Mehmet Ağa, Ramazan Efendi, Edirne Selimiye Mosques around Fatih, Çarşamba and Karagümrük, and Takkeci İbrahim Ağa and Kanuni's Mosque in Topkapı in Istanbul. The tombs of Hürrem Sultan, the wife of Hürrem Sultan, are monumental structures decorated with the most selected tiles of the period.
The Sultan Ahmet Mosque (1616), the Baghdad and Revan Mansions in Topkapı Palace, the Çinili Mosque in Üsküdar, the Hatice Turhan Sultan Tomb in Eminönü (1682), and the New Mosque (1663) in Eminönü are the main works of art built during this period and decorated with tiles. www.armadacini.com
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